After a three-year - old boy was hit by the epidemic, China declared a health emergency over the Black Death Plague.
According to Chinese state media sources, the boy, from a remote village in Menghai County, Yunnan, was reported to be infected with the killer disease on Monday.
Bubonic plague is a bacterial disease transmitted by fleas that live on wild rats that, if not treated in time, will kill an adult in less than 24 hours.
In order to deter another disease following the Covid-19 outbreak, Chinese authorities have now started a Level IV emergency response.
The creation comes after the discovery in a village in Menghai, China, of three dead disease-ridden rats.
Often known as the 'Black Death,' according to WHO reports, the plague killed up to 200 million people in the 14th century.
There has been a plague epidemic in Mongolia, China's neighboring country, which has seen 22 recorded cases, six of which have been confirmed.
A 25-year-old woman was reportedly hospitalised with the disease after eating an infected rodent called a marmot. Three of the six confirmed cases have died in Mongolia - most recently a 38-year-old man in Khovsgol province earlier this month.
Hunting marmots is illegal in Mongolia, but many regard the rodent as a delicacy and kill it for meat.
The Black Death was an epidemic of bubonic plague which struck Europe and Asia in the 13th century killing more than 20 million people in Europe - almost one third of the continent's population between 1347-1352.
Advancements in modern medicine mean a similar pandemic is highly unlikely as it can now be easily treated, if caught.
The bacteria can travel through the air as well as through the bites of infected fleas and rats.Bubonic plague can cause swelling of the lymph nodes.If untreated it could spread to the blood and lungs.Other symptoms included fever, vomiting and chills.